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初中英语易混词词汇辨析

www.177liuxue.cn 来源:21CN 发布时间:2010-03-29 9:51:43

这是一篇关于初中英语词汇辨析,初中英语易混词汇辨析,初中英语易混词汇的文章。damages{鉂ぃ菜坪苤匾?/p 23. police, policeman鉂も潳鉂ぃ?/p police警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词,pol

①clothes统指各种衣服,谓语动词用复数, a suit of clothes指一套衣服。可以说many clothes, these clothes,不说an article of clothes.

②cloth 用来指“织物”时,为不可数名词。指“布块”时,是可数的,但注意它的复数形式是cloths,如:wipe the surface with a damp cloth.

③clothing服装的总称,总是单数形式。指一件衣服用a piece of / an article of clothing.

2. incident, accident, event

incident一般是经过策划,有蓄谋的事件,如西安事变(站在老蒋的立场,这字太合适了)还有如border incident,也可以指小事,如偶遇什么人;accident指不幸的事故he was killed in the accident;event指较大的事,如你考取大学,对你是个event(尽管对别人无所谓); 历史上的大事件,也多用event.

3. deal,amount, number

amount / deal及其组合量词词组后接不可数名词,number及其组合后接可数名词a number of students,注意:

large amount of water was sent to the small village.

large amounts of water were sent to the small village.

4. family, house, home

home家,包括住处和家人,house房子,住宅,family家庭成员. my family is a happy one.

5. sound, voice, noise

sound凡你听得到的声音就是它。voice人的嗓音。noise噪音i hate the loud noise outside.

6. photo, picture, drawing, painting

photo用照相机拍摄的照片,picture可指相片,图片,电影片let‘s go and see a good picture ;drawing画的画,主要是线条形的,如工程图;painting 指(如油彩类)绘画

7. vocabulary, word

vocabulary词汇,一个人拥有的单词总量,word具体的单词:he has a large vocabulary.

8. population, people

population人口,人数china has a large population.;people具体的人,民族the chinese are a great people.

what’s the population of your country?

how large is the population of your country.

9. weather, climate

weather具体的天气状况(k:为不可数吧。。),climate气候状况the climate here is not good for you.(k:嗯嗯看来这个可数了)

10. road, street, path, way

road具体的公路,马路。street街道。path小路,小径。way道路,做事情的“做法” // take this road;in the street;show me the way to the museum.

11. course, subject

course课程(课程表中的所有subject)“course”做为课程讲时是可数名词,所以应用复数形式。 ,subject科目(具体的学科)math is her best subject

12. custom, habit

①custom [c/u] 即有时指“一种”风俗、习俗而有时指风俗的“统称”。the custom of doing sth.如the custom of kissing under mistletoe;但它也可指个人的生活习惯,不过往往侧重指一种有规律的行为,而并非一个人那种无意识的“习惯”on wednesday evening, as was his custom, he went down to the village. ②habit生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接of doing. i‘ve got the habit of drinking a lot.

13. cause, reason

the cause(s) of =... 的原因; the cause f =... 的理由;

the cause of the explosion has not been explained.

you have no cause for complaint. (= to complain.)

汶川地震的(原因v)(理由x) 是什么呢?

what is the cause of the wenchuan earthquake?

reason(s)for sth./doing sth.(做)...的理由

the reason for being late

could you explain your reasons for choosing this particular course?

for reasons of... 由于...的原因,出于什么的考虑

14. exercise, exercises, practice

exercise运动,锻炼(不可数)。exercises作业,但做体操也是: gymnastic exercises体操,spelling exercises拼写练习。practice(遵循某理论或教导而做,有时是反复做的)练习practice makes perfect的

15. class, lesson

作"课"解时,两者大致可以替换a mathematics class/lesson;a class/lesson in mathematics都可以说.指课文用lesson.指班级或全体学生用class。如lesson 6; class 5

16. speech, talk, lecture

speech指在公共场所所做的经过准备的较正式的演说,talk日常生活中的一般的谈话,讲话,但国际性的、围绕某问题举行的会谈也用talk,如六方会谈six-party talk;lecture学术性的演讲,讲课a lecture on dickens

17. officer, official

officer 单独用指陆海空军官,警官;official主要指政府官员an army officer/ a government official

18. work, job

二者均指工作。work不可数,job可数a good job / out of a job/ out of jobs/ out of work

19. couple, pair

couple主要指人或动物,pair多指由两部分组成的东西a pair of trousers。夫妇多用couple(也可用pair);合作伙伴多用pair /a couple of 几个

20. country, nation, state, land

①country侧重指版图,疆域;②nation指人民,国民,民族;③state侧重指政府,政体;④land国土,国家(有点诗意)the whole nation was sad at the earthquake of wenchuan.

21. cook, cooker

cook厨师,cooker厨具he is a good cook.

22. damage, damages

damage不可数名词,损害,损失; damages复数形式,赔偿金$900 damages{鉂ぃ菜坪苤匾?/p>

23. police, policeman鉂も潳鉂ぃ?/p>

police警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词,policeman指某个具体的警察the police are questioning everyone in the house.

24. problem(可数), question,issue

problem常和困难(故障)联系,前面的动词常为think about, solve, raise。question常和疑问联系,多和ask, answer连用。problem with the machine不太用of. / issure 实际= 事务 ||environmental problem / issue意思不一样

25. man, a man

man人类,a man一个男人man will conquer nature.

man与mankind前都不用the

26. chick, chicken

二者均可指小鸡,chicken还可以当鸡肉the chicken is delicious. do you like dogs / dog? (喜欢狗/狗肉?)

27. telegram, telegraph

telegram多作可数名词用,如:he received a telegram saying that his mother had died.而telegraph既能作名词又能作动词用,本题选telegraph。

28. travel, trip, tour, journey, voyage

travel总称。trip注重办事,后接to如a business trip to shanghai;tour注重游玩,后接of。journey指稍长的旅途。voyage指乘船的航行,如space voyage.

29. sport, game

sport多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,游泳,打猎,赛马等his favorite sport is swimming;game指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套规则

30. price, prize,award, reward

price价格the price is high/low.;prize(竞赛类)的奖,奖品,奖金win the first prize;award经评委选出的奖,但the nobel prize是个例外;给你老妈擦了地板之类,具体付出具体所得的奖赏,就是reward。

31. a number of, the number of鉂も潳鉂ぃ?/p>

a number of许多,谓语动词用复数。the number of…这个数字…,谓语动词用单数。the number of students is increasing.

32. in front of, in the front of

in front of范围外的前面,in the front of范围内的前面in the front of the classroom stands the strict teacher. (教室内前)

33. of the day, of a day

of the day每一天的,当时的,当代的,of a day暂时的,不长久的a famous scientist of the day

34. three of us, the three of us鉂も潳鉂ぃ?/p>

three of us我们(不止三个)中的三个,the three of us我们三个(就三个人)the three of us---tom, jack and i went to the cinema.

35. by bus, on the bus

by bus表手段,方式,不用冠词。on the bus表所乘具体的车辆,或表范围they came here on this bus.( by busx)

36. for a moment, for the moment

for a moment片刻,一会儿,for the moment暂时,一时thinking for a moment, he agreed.

37. next year, the next year

next year将来时间状语,the next year过去将来时间状语(如常用于间接引语)he will come here next year. / he said he would go abroad the next year.

38. more than a year, more than one year

more than a year一年多,more than one year超过一年(两年或三年等)

39. take advice, take the(one‘s) advice

take advice征求意见,take the advice接受忠告he refused to take the advice and failed again.

40. take air, take the air

take air传播,走漏,take the air到户外去,散步we take the air every day.

41. in a word, in words,in word

in a word总之,一句话in a word, you are right;in words=in word口头上(in practice实践上) he should be a friend in practice, not only in word / or, he should be a friend in deed as well as in word. in words口语化,in word文学化些。

42. in place of, in the place of

in place of代替≈take sb.‘s place代替某人;in the place of在…地方a new building is built in the place of the old one.

43. in secret, in the secret

in secret秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作状语;in the secret知道内情,知道秘密,一般用作表语my mother was in the secret from the beginning.

44. a girl, one girl

a girl可泛指所有女孩, one girl一个女孩can one girl carry such a big box? one在这种用法中常强调数量意味(见38条)

45. take a chair, take the chair

take a chair相当于sit down坐下,take the chair开始开会,做主席the news that keefe is to take the chair comes

46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea

go to sea当海员,出航,by sea乘船,由海路,by the sea在海边 go by sea

47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher

the doctor and teacher指一个人,既是医生又是老师;the doctor and the teacher两个人,一个医生和一个老师。(有时作为特别强调,也指一个人)

51. in class, in the class

in class在课上,in the class在班级里he is the best student in the class.

52. on fire, on the fire

on fire着火,on the fire在火上put the food on the fire. the house is on fire.

53. out of question, out of the question

out of question毫无疑问的,out of the question不可能的(记法:opportunity可能性,长的那个词组与可能性有关)

54. a second, the second

a second又一,再一,the second第二的 he won the second prize.

55. by day, by the day

by day白天,by the day按天计算 the workers are paid by the day.

56. the people, a people

the people指人,a people指民族 the chinese is a peace-loving people.

57. it, one

it同一物体,one同类不同一 i lost my pen. i have to buy a new one.

58. that, this

that指代上文所提到的,this导出下文所要说的 i was ill. that‘s why…

59. none, nothing, no one

一般情况下,nothing回答what问句;nobody和no one回答who问句;none回答how many或how much问句。

①— what’s in the box?盒子里有什么?

— nothing.什么也没有。

②—who is in the classroom?谁在教室里?

—nobody / no one.没有人。

③—how many people are there in the park?公园里有多少人?

—none.没有人。

60. anyone, any one

1. anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物。如:

would anyone like a drink?谁想喝一杯吗?

i don’t want to waste anyone’s time.我不想浪费任何人的时间。

he told her not to tell anyone.他告诉她不要告诉任何人。

—which pen do you want?你要哪支钢笔?

—any one will do.随便哪一支都行

2. anyone后不能接表示范围的of短语,而any one后可接表示范围的of短语。如:

i don’t know any one of them.他们中我一个也不认识。

any one of us could fail in the exam.我们当中的任何一个都可能考试不及格。

3. anyone不能用作定语修饰名词,而any one可以用作定语修饰名词。如:

you can borrow any one video at a time.你一次可以借任何一盘录像带。

i can’t point to any one particular reason for it.那件事我找不出具体原因来。

4. anyone可以受形容词的修饰,且修饰语于anyone之后;而any one很少受形容词的修饰,若语义上需要,应将修饰语置于any与one之间。如:

did you see anyone else there?你在那里看到其他的人吗?

have you seen anyone [anybody] famous?你见过名人吗?

any red one will do.任何一个红色的都可以。

61. who, what

who指姓名或关系,what指职业或地位 what is your dad? he is a teacher.

62. what, which

what的选择基础是无限制的,which在一定范围内进行选择 which do you prefer, bananas or apples?

63. other, another

other后接名词复数,another后接名词单数 other students, another student

64. not a little, not a bit

not a little非常,not a bit一点也不 i‘m not a bit tired. 我一点儿也不累。

65. many, much, a lot of

many和可数名词连用,much和不可数名词连用,a lot of可数,不可数均可,但不用于否定句 i haven‘t many books.

66. much more…than, many more…than

much more…than后接形容词或不可数名词,many more…than后接可数名词 many more people, much more water, much more beautiful

67. no, not

no=not a/any;no friend=not a/any friend ;no water = not any water

68. no more than, not more than

no more than相当于only,仅仅,只有,not more than 至多,不超过

69. majority, most

majority只能修饰可数名词,most可数不可数均可 the majority of people

70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself

by oneself单独的,独自的,for oneself为自己,to oneself供自己用的,of oneself 自行的,自动的 the door opened of itself.

71. at all, after all

at all根本,全然;after all到底,毕竟 after all he is a child.

72. tall, high

tall常指人或动物等细长类东西,high常指基础大的物体 he is tall.

73. fast, rapid, quickly

fast具有速度快的特点,但不一定动了,如停的飞机;rapid一般指本身在动的,如河流,进步;quickly往往与人反应相关 run fast, answer the question quickly

74. high, highly

high具体的高,highly抽象的高,高度的 think highly of

75. healthy, healthful

healthy健康的(指一种长期状态),healthful有益于健康的healthful exercise总用keep healthy.he‘s healthy.(v) he‘s healthy today.(x) his body is healthy.

76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy

sleeping正在睡觉,asleep睡着,熟睡,只能做表语,sleepy困的,有睡意的a sleeping baby;the baby is asleep; i‘m sleepy.

77. gold, golden

gold指真金制品,golden指金色的,但金鱼用gold fish a gold ring

78. most, mostly

most①用于表感受的肯定句中,相当于very:most impatiently,a most impressive piece of writing.②当大部分,大多数解时是形容词或名词:won the most votes.;mostly主要地,是副词our weather has been mostly warm.

79. just, very

just表强调时是副词,作状语,very表强调时是形容词,用作定语 the very man, just the man

80. wide, broad

wide侧重于一边到另一边的距离,broad侧重于幅面的宽广broad shoulders/眼宽、嘴宽用wide, 脸宽用broad

81. real, true

用real去表示“为实”的真,如材料/行为/存在:real gold/ a real friend/ in real trouble;用true去表示“对比性(符合)”的真,如常识/重要性:a true prophecy / a true friend

82. respectful, respectable

respectful尊敬的(自身对别人所抱的心态);respectable值得尊敬的(给别人的印象),be respectful to the aged

83. outwards, outward

二者均可用作副词,表示向外,外面,outward还可用作形容词 an outward voyage

84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing

pleasant常用作定语或表语,“让别人愉快的” life is pleasant. death is peaceful / a pleasant trip;pleased, pleasing常用作表语,pleased主语常为人,pleasing主语常为物;the trip is pleasing. / the food is pleasing to my taste.

85. understanding, understandable

understanding明白事理的,能体谅的,understandable 可理解的,能够懂的 an understanding girl, an understandable mistake

86. close, closely

close(地点)接近地stand close;closely(关系)密切地 closely connected,

87. ill, sick

ill主要是做表语;sick定语,表语均可 a sick boy

88. good, well

good形容词;well副词,但指身体状况是形容词 he is well again.

89. quiet, silent, still

quiet安静的,可以发出小的声音;silent不发出声音,但可以动;still完全不动,完全无声响 he stand there still. 他站在那儿,一动不动,也不说话。

90. hard, hardly

hard努力work hard;hardly几乎不 i can hardly believe it.

91. able, capable

able与不定式to do连用,capable与of连用 he is capable of doing…

92. almost, nearly

肯定句中通用;almost可以接not以外的否定词,也就是no, none, never, any以及由no和any构成的词例如nobody, nothing, anything等;not nearly为习语,表示“far from”,“远不”的意思

93. late, lately

①late迟,晚是adj.

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